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About Eye Anatomy &  Laser Eye Surgery in Mumbai

Our eyes help us to appreciate the beauty and diversity of nature and our surroundings. Color, shapes, patterns, designs and in fact everything and everyone around us acquires meaning and a sense of reality because our brain is able to process the information it receives via the sensory input through eyes. Human eyeball is a complicated structure. Each eye can be broken down in to 5 basic parts; Iris, Cornea, Lens, Pupil and the Retina. Apart from these, there are a number of highly specialized cells called as rods and cons that further aid in colored and black and white vision. The Eye is connected to special areas of cerebral cortex (brain) via a dense network of nerve cells, which relay the information to the brain for further processing.

Surface Anatomy

Human eye is an asymmetrical globe and measures about 1 inch in diameter. In the skull, the eye is placed in special sockets called as orbit. Surrounding the eye, there are many layers of muscles and fatty tissues. The function of these is not only to help protect the eyeball from trauma but also to help in the movement of the eye in various directions by simultaneous contraction and relaxation of eye muscles. There are a total of 6 muscles solely responsible for movement of eyeball.

Iris

It is a pigmented circular muscle of the eye that not only gives eye its color, but also plays the crucial role of regulating the amount of light that enters the eye. It does so by controlling the size of the pupil, which is present right at the center of iris. The pigments eumelanin and pheomelanin are responsible for giving iris its characteristic color.

Cornea

Cornea along with the white sclera forms the external most layer of the eyeball. It is a transparent surface that covers both the pupil and the iris. The cornea is not only the first but also the most powerful lens of the optical system. Together with the crystalline lens, it helps in production of a sharp image at the photoreceptor level at the retina. The entire first chamber is continuously bathed in tear fluid, which provides the necessary nutrition and oxygen to cornea and lens. A total of 5 layers of different epithelium cover the entire structure. The outer most layer is made of highly regenerative cells. This helps in fast recovery from any superficial injury to cornea or sclera. Two middle layers provide structural stability and strength to eyeball and finally the innermost two layers function to provide optical clarity.

The importance of understanding anatomy of cornea lies in the fact that all the errors in vision arise from dysfunction of this layer. Thus disorders like myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism are corrected by targeting Lasik at the corneal level of eye. Lasik laser eye surgery in Mumbai guarantees you the best possible outcome not only because it is one of the most advanced Lasik laser centre but also because the team Lasik surgeons is highly experienced and trained internationally.

Pupil

It lies just at the center of the iris and its major function is to control the amount of light entering the eye. The color of the pupil is black as it absorbs all the light entering the eye. The red eye effect seen in some photographs is due to the reflection of light on the pupil from the retina. When dark, the pupil expands to let more light in and the reverse happens when exposed to bright light.

Retina

This is the innermost part of the eye and is richly supplied by nerves and photosensitive cells. Rod and Con cells responsible for colored or dark vision are also present in this area. From the retina, the image is finally transferred to the visual cortex of brain for further processing.

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